Understanding Local Network Devices, Segments, and Backbones
In most cases, devices always have to go beyond their immediate environment in order to share data and have access to larger, which is what brought about network segments and backbones.
Relatively few networks are based on directly connecting computers together, rather than making hosts establish a direct link with one another, each host is connected to a central node, such as switch or wireless access point.
The central mode now provides a forwarding function, receiving the communication from one side and sending it to another.
A central mode such as switch implies that the connected nodes are part of the same physical network and uses the same type of transmission media.
The term switching is used for this forwarding function taking place within the same physical network.
The addresses of interfaces within the network are described as local addresses or private addresses.
The term segment can be used to refer to a specific physical region of a network. In another word, it can be a group of devices that are together and share some things in common such as the same local addresses.
Another usage is to refer to a region if of the network where all the nodes use the same type of transmission media and have the same bandwidth.
A network is typically divided into segments either to either cope with the physical restriction of the network media used or to improve performance or security or all the three.
A Backbone describes a fast link between other segments of the network. The backbone carries all the communications occurring between nodes in separate segments.
Routing device and Subnets
Local and remote networks can be joined using nodes such as routers that can make distinctions between logical separate networks.
Such networks may use different types of transmission media and network protocols.
A network of hosts all installed in the same building may be subdivided into separate logical networks, often referred to subnetworks or subnets.
It is a network of networks. Each interface must have a network address in addition to a local address.
You should also note that the scope of a segment depends on the exact technology in use in that segment.
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