Major terms to know in Cybersecurity
Here are some of the terms that you need to know in the field of Cybersecurity
Cyber Attack – An attack, via cyberspace, targeting an enterprise’s use of cyberspace for the purpose of disrupting, disabling, destroying, or maliciously controlling a computing environment/infrastructure; or destroying the integrity of the data or stealing controlled information
Cyberspace – A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information systems infrastructures including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.
Cybersecurity – The ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyberattacks.
Cybersecurity Attack – An attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or an attempt to compromise system integrity.
Confidentiality – Preserving authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information.
Integrity – Guarding against improper information modification or destruction and includes ensuring information non-repudiation and authenticity.
Data Breach – Accessing information without authorization.
Vulnerability – Weakness in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation that could be exploited or triggered by a threat source.
Authorization – Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process or the act of granting those privileges.
Availability – The authorized people should have access to their systems and data all the time. Authentication – Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system.
Access Control – The process of granting or denying specific requests to: 1) obtain and use information and related information processing services; and 2) enter specific physical facilities (e.g., federal buildings, military establishments, border crossing entrances).
Incident – A violation or imminent threat of violation of computer security policies, acceptable use policies, or standard security practices.
Intrusion – Unauthorized act of bypassing the security mechanisms of a system.
Threat – Any circumstance or event with the potential to adversely impact organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the Nation through an information system via unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of information, and/or denial of service.
Patch – An update to an operating system, application, or other software issued specifically to correct particular problems with the software.
Incident Response Platform (IRP) – is a platform for orchestrating and automating incident response processes.
PuTTY – is a free and open – source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application that supports several network protocols. It’s a tool for remote access to another computer.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) – A communication protocol that provides a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. One of the computers will run RDP client software and the other computer will run RDP server software.
Cyberattacks types and definitions:
Stuxnet – is a malicious computer worm that is believed to be used as a cyber weapon against Iran’s nuclear program and caused damage to it.
Backdoor – An undocumented way of gaining access to a computer system. A backdoor is a potential security risk.
Brute Force Password Attack – A method of accessing an obstructed device through attempting multiple combinations of numeric and/or alphanumeric passwords.
Key Logger – A program designed to record which keys are pressed on a computer keyboard used to obtain passwords or encryption keys and thus bypass other security measures.
Network Sniffing – A passive technique that monitors network communication, decodes protocols, and examines headers and payloads for information of interest.
Password Cracking – The process of recovering secret passwords stored in a computer system or transmitted over a network
Spoofing – “IP spoofing” refers to sending a network packet that appears to come from a source other than its actual source.
Spyware – Software that is secretly or surreptitiously installed into an information system to gather information on individuals or organizations without their knowledge; a type of malicious code.
Trojan Horse – A computer program that appears to have a useful function, but also has a hidden and potentially malicious function that evades security mechanisms, sometimes by exploiting legitimate authorizations of a system entity that invokes the program.
Virus – A computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. A virus might corrupt or delete data on a computer, use email programs to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything on a hard disk.
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